Remember, to press enter once you have finished typing. The computer will not reply, but you are now sitting in your Documents directory. You can test this by running ls again: the list of names will be different. So where do we go from here? How do we know which of these names are folders that we can go into and which are files that we can't? For that, we need more information from the ls command. Let's give it the -F flag to tell us about files and folders. You will notice that this time, some of the names that the computer returns to you will have a slash after them.
These names are folders: the rest are files. You can always cd into a folder by running cd with the folder name as an argument, as long as you can see that folder with ls -F. When you're done looking in folders, it's time to go back up. But how?
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Luckily, every folder contains a hidden link back up. To see these hidden links, we will use the -a flag for ls to see all. There are at least two hidden links in every folder. In fact, you can give the ls command multiple flags, like so:. If you run this command, you will notice that the. To go back up a folder, you can always run:. Remember that if you ever get lost in the computer, you can run pwd to see where you are.
Computer programmers are lazy. Because they are lazy, they invented some techniques to do more with less work. Here are some of those techniques:. Whenever you need to type out a location in an argument for example, in the cd command , you don't have to type out the whole thing: the first few letters will do.
Once you've typed three or four letters, press the tab key, and the command line will fill in the rest for you! For example, if you are in your home directory, and you type cd Desk and then press the tab key, the command line will automatically complete the command to read cd Desktop!
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You can also use this if you find yourself mistyping folder names: tab autocompletion will always fill it in correctly. The command line has a few shortcuts built in. For example, to see your previously typed command, just press the up button. You can do this to submit the same command multiple times, or to edit a command that you didn't type in quite right. Remember, when you use the command line, the computer will cheerfully do anything it can for you.
If you ask it to do something bad, it will try to do so. Some people take advantage of this fact by telling novice command line users to run commands that do nasty things to your computer. Here are a few to watch out for. Never run any of these commands! They can and will destroy your computer!
The command to remove a file is rm. You can also use rm to remove multiple files at a time. Viewed 43k times.
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Alexey Klyukin Alexey Klyukin 73 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 7 7 bronze badges. Gordon Davisson Gordon Davisson 9, 2 2 gold badges 22 22 silver badges 31 31 bronze badges. Rob Rob 5 5 bronze badges. To get detailed information on CPU features, you can go low-level with sysctl: sysctl -a grep cpu.
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There are occasions when we just need to a file of a particular size for testing. I often find it useful to copy a 1GB file over a network to get an idea of speeds. Finding a file that is the size we want is tricky, but with the command line we can create an empty file of any size that we want.
You can specify the file size in bytes b , kilobytes k , megabytes m or gigabytes g. The above example creates a test file of 1GB called test. This one is for all the budding system administrators out there. Your Terminal window will constantly watch your specified file in this case, the system. Sure, we could open System Preferences , select Network and then view our IP address information, but doing it through the command line is so much cooler! The term en0 represents the network interface to use.
Similar to some programming languages, the first network interface starts at zero and then counts up, so if you have two interfaces such as ethernet and WiFi then they would be en0 and en1 , respectively. Ping sends very small bits of information over a network to a remote computer, timing how long it takes for a response to be received.
Running the above command will send 10 packets of information and provide detailed information about the response time. You can substitute www. For Macs with a built-in multitouch trackpad or used with the Magic Trackpad, Google Chrome offers its own version of two-finger swiping to go forward and back. To revert the changes:. Thankfully, we can change this:.
Quit and relaunch any app that uses iCloud and now any new documents will default to your Mac in the save dialog rather than iCloud. We can alter the Dock so any apps that are hidden will have a translucent icon:.
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It can be very tedious to enter it all out. What we can do instead is use the Tab key to autocomplete. If not, you can press Tab twice and it will jump as far as it can, then display all potential files and folders you might want to get to. To try this, enter the following but instead of pressing Enter , press Tab instead:. You can then add the last character to the path and press Enter.
Mac OS X has some great speech functionality built-in and we can even have it say anything we want:. You can mimic the behaviour of Disk Utility and restore a disk image file to an volume connected to your Mac:. It will skip verification you can remove that part if you want to verify it but it can take some time and you can restore an image, such as a copy of OS X, directly to a volume or partition. Dashboard was once the future of quick-to-access apps such as a calculator and sticky notes.
I use Mission Control extensively and have it positioned on the far left but, honestly, I prefer it gone completely. Thankfully, Dashboard can be permanently silenced:. The app Activity Monitor can give us a detailed view of what our Mac is currently doing. We can replicate much of its functionality in Terminal:.
Once running, we can easily see all the current processes, listed by processor usage with the processes using the most CPU moving to the top of the list. The Terminal can help you configure your Mac exactly how you want it and provide access to features that just don't have any graphical interface to change.